gli africani sono tutti ritardati?
IQ and the Wealth of Nations' was not peer-reviewed before publication but was published by a publisher of academic literature. Peer reviewed articles have used the IQ scores presented in the book and some have also commented on the claims in the book.
Several negative reviews have been published in the scholarly literature. Susan Barnett and Wendy Williams wrote that "we see an edifice built on layer upon layer of arbitrary assumptions and selective data manipulation. The data on which the entire book is based are of questionably validity and are used in ways that cannot be justified." They also wrote that cross country comparisons are "virtually meaningless." Ken Richardson wrote "This is not so much science, then, as a social crusade. The Pioneer Fund of America, champion of many dubious causes in the past, will obtain little credit from having assisted this one." Thomas Nechyba wrote of "relatively weak statistical evidence and dubious presumptions." Astrid Ervik asked "are people in rich countries smarter than those in poorer countries?" and concluded that "the authors fail to present convincing evidence and appear to jump to conclusions."
Denny Borsboom (2006) finds that mainstream contemporary test analysis does not reflect substantial recent developments in the field and "bears an uncanny resemblance to the psychometric state of the art as it existed in the 1950s." For example, it notes that IQ and the Wealth of Nations, in order to show that the tests are unbiased, uses outdated methodology, if anything indicative of that test bias exist.
Thomas Volken wrote that the study is "neither methodologically nor theoretically convincing." Although critical of the IQ data, for the sake of argument Volken assumes that the data is correct but then criticizes the statistical methods used, finding no effect on growth or income. Using the same assumption, Garett Jones and W. Joel Schneider report a strong connection between intelligence and economic growth.
Erich Weede and Sebastian Kampf wrote that "there is one clear and robust result: average IQ does promote growth." Edward Miller wrote that "the theory helps significantly to explain why some countries are rich and some poor." Michael Palairet wrote that "Lynn and Vanhanen have launched a powerful challenge to economic historians and development economists who prefer not to use IQ as an analytical input." In a reanalysis of the Lynn and Vanhanen's hypothesis, Dickerson (2006) finds that IQ and GDP data is best fitted by an exponential function, with IQ explaining approximately 70% of the variation in GDP. Dickerson concludes that as a rough approximation "an increase of 10 points in mean IQ results in a doubling of the per capita GDP."
Whetzel and McDaniel (2006) conclude that the book's "results regarding the relationship between IQ, democracy and economic freedom are robust". Moreover, they address "criticisms concerning the measurement of IQ in purportedly low IQ countries", finding that by setting "all IQ scores below 90 to equal 90, the relationship between IQ and wealth of nations remained strong and actually increased in magnitude." On this question they conclude that their findings "argue against claims made by some that inaccuracies in IQ estimation of low IQ countries invalidate conclusions about the relationship between IQ and national wealth."
Voracek (2004) used the national IQ data to examine the relationship between intelligence and suicide, finding national IQ was positively correlated with national male and female suicide rates. The effect was not attenuated by controlling for GDP.
Barber (2005) found that national IQ was associated with rates of secondary education enrollment, illiteracy, and agricultural employment. The effect on illiteracy and agricultural employment remained with national wealth, infant mortality, and geographic continent controlled.
Both Lynn and Rushton have suggested that high IQ is associated with colder climates. To test this hypothesis, Templer and Arikawa (2006) compare the national IQ data from Lynn and Vanhanen with data sets that describe national average skin color and average winter and summer temperatures. They find that the strongest correlations to national IQ were −0.92 for skin color and −0.76 for average high winter temperature. They interpret this finding as strong support for IQ-climate association. Other studies using different data sets find no correlation .
Kanazawa (2006), "IQ and the wealth of states" (in press in Intelligence), replicates across U.S. states Lynn and Vanhanen's demonstration that national IQs strongly correlate with macroeconomic performance. Kanazawa finds that state cognitive ability scores, based on the SAT data, correlate moderately with state economic performance, explaining about a quarter of the variance in gross state product per capita.
Hunt and Wittmann (in press) use data from the Program for International Student Assessment (PISA) to conclude that "in spite of the weaknesses [in] several of their data points Lynn and Vanhanen's empirical conclusion was correct, but we question the simple explanation that national intelligence causes national wealth. We argue that the relationship is more complex".
The book was followed by Lynn's 2006 Race Differences in Intelligence, which expands the data by nearly four times and concludes the average human IQ is presently 90 when compared to a norm of 100 based on UK data, or two thirds of a standard deviation below the UK norm, and Lynn and Vanhanen's 2006 IQ and Global Inequality.
Jared Diamond's Guns, Germs and Steel instead argues that historical differences in economic and technological development for different areas can be explained by differences in geography (which affects factors like population density and spread of new technology) and differences in available crops and domesticatable animals. Richard Nisbett argues in his 2004 The Geography of Thought that some of these regional differences shaped lasting cultural traits, such as the collectivism required by East Asian rice irrigation, compared with the individualism of ancient Greek herding, maritime mercantilism, and money crops wine and olive oil (pp. 34-35).
La fonte di questo passo? Abituiamoci a citare anche le fonti, specialmente se riportiamo a conferma di una personale idea precedentemente espressa.
Originariamente Scritto da Black87
Wikipedia, con tanto di errori di grammatica inglese
ok, la mia è stata una ricerca superficiale. Domani approfondirò il concetto con una caterva di fonti. Mi intendo un attimino di queste cose.
Originariamente Scritto da MadRock
Allora hanno sbagliato colore per l'Italia... dovrebbe essere bicolore, stile ringo boys...
Ma che cagata dai.... 59 di IQ lo ha il mio cane
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se in italia c'è un QI così alto e c'è sta gentaglia, ho paura di confrontarmi con uno di un altro paese..
" tra noi sarebbe come abbinare un vino pregiato a un ottimo cibo " ..
Originariamente Scritto da modgallagher
Scoppi Irregolari User
Per fare un esempio, sotto il punteggio di 70 in genere si fa diagnosi di ritardo mentale, confrontando i punteggi di QI con le capacità adattive dell'individuo. 59 di media si traduce in persone affette (in media) da un ritardo mentale medio in praticamente metà del mondo. Il problema è che in molti paesi evidenziati non è stata neanche effettuata la taratura dei test per calcolare il QI, soprattutto nei paesi del terzo mondo, dove probabilmente i test non sono stati nemmeno tradotti. E' una cosa che scientificamente ha davvero poco senso. Non capisco come si possa elaborare una teoria che si basa sul rapporto PIL/QI quando nella metà del mondo i test per il calcolo del QI non sono nemmeno utilizzati, o peggio non tradotti.
Originariamente Scritto da Sergio
Giusto per darvi un'idea, la taratura della scala Weschler in italia è una cosa piuttosto recente, prima della taratura i punteggi italiani, rispetto a quelli americani, erano ampiamente sotto la media (calcolata sui punteggi normativi americani).
Ultima modifica di Black87; 20-09-2009 alle 04:49:54